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2023年9月30日 星期六 农历八月十六

经济日报:下力气提升粮食安全保障能力

浏览次数:390 日(ri)期:2024-07-27 来源(yuan):本站(zhan)

来源:经济日报

粮(liang)(liang)食安(an)全是“压舱石”,关(guan)系经济(ji)(ji)社会(hui)(hui)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)全局(ju),关(guan)系国家安(an)全。7月24日(ri)中共中央(yang)政治局(ju)召开会(hui)(hui)议分析研究当前经济(ji)(ji)形势时作(zuo)出(chu)“粮(liang)(liang)食能(neng)源安(an)全得到有(you)效保(bao)(bao)障(zhang)”的判断,这(zhei)为(wei)推动经济(ji)(ji)持(chi)续(xu)(xu)回升向好、加快构建新发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)格局(ju)、着力推动高质量发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)提供(gong)了有(you)力支撑。当然,极端天气频发(fa)(fa)、地缘政治冲(chong)突持(chi)续(xu)(xu)等因素也给我国粮(liang)(liang)食稳(wen)(wen)定(ding)供(gong)应带(dai)来很(hen)多(duo)不(bu)确(que)定(ding)性,我们要(yao)坚持(chi)底(di)线思维,持(chi)续(xu)(xu)提升粮(liang)(liang)食安(an)全保(bao)(bao)障(zhang)能(neng)力,为(wei)实(shi)现全年经济(ji)(ji)社会(hui)(hui)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)目标打下(xia)良好基(ji)础,为(wei)社会(hui)(hui)大(da)局(ju)稳(wen)(wen)定(ding)筑牢底(di)盘。

粮(liang)(liang)食生产(chan)(chan)(chan)是保障粮(liang)(liang)食安(an)全的核心(xin)基础。今(jin)年夏粮(liang)(liang)再获丰收(shou),全年粮(liang)(liang)食丰收(shou)基础较好,为保障粮(liang)(liang)食安(an)全增添了信心(xin)。国家(jia)统计(ji)(ji)局数据显示(shi),今(jin)年夏粮(liang)(liang)产(chan)(chan)(chan)量2923亿(yi)斤,比上年减(jian)(jian)(jian)少25.5亿(yi)斤,下降(jiang)0.9%,产(chan)(chan)(chan)量居历(li)史第二高位,预计(ji)(ji)早稻面(mian)积(ji)在7100万亩以上,基本保持稳定。秋(qiu)粮(liang)(liang)是全年粮(liang)(liang)食丰收(shou)的大(da)头,当前秋(qiu)粮(liang)(liang)播种面(mian)积(ji)稳中略增,预计(ji)(ji)超(chao)过13亿(yi)亩,长(zhang)势与常年大(da)体相(xiang)当。大(da)豆面(mian)积(ji)小幅增加,大(da)豆玉米(mi)带状(zhuang)复合种植(zhi)面(mian)积(ji)扩大(da)到2000万亩,比上年增加500万亩。冬(dong)油菜面(mian)积(ji)增加较多,产(chan)(chan)(chan)量创历(li)史新高。但是今(jin)年秋(qiu)粮(liang)(liang)生产(chan)(chan)(chan)面(mian)临着极(ji)端恶劣天(tian)气和病(bing)虫(chong)害防治的严峻形势,各地(di)政府(fu)要未(wei)雨(yu)绸缪、主动应对,做(zuo)好防灾(zai)减(jian)(jian)(jian)灾(zai)工作,大(da)面(mian)积(ji)提单(dan)产(chan)(chan)(chan)、增产(chan)(chan)(chan)量,最大(da)限度(du)减(jian)(jian)(jian)轻灾(zai)害损失(shi)。

夏粮(liang)尽管有(you)小幅(fu)减产(chan)(chan),但(dan)对粮(liang)食市(shi)场(chang)影响(xiang)(xiang)不(bu)大(da)。今(jin)年(nian)(nian)上半(ban)年(nian)(nian),粮(liang)食供应(ying)充(chong)(chong)足(zu)、价(jia)格(ge)(ge)(ge)稳(wen)定,稻谷、小麦、玉米(mi)(mi)三大(da)主(zhu)粮(liang)价(jia)格(ge)(ge)(ge)总体平稳(wen)。分品种看,小麦年(nian)(nian)际(ji)间(jian)产(chan)(chan)需平衡有(you)余,特别是2019年(nian)(nian)至(zhi)2022年(nian)(nian)连续四年(nian)(nian)增产(chan)(chan),库(ku)存(cun)充(chong)(chong)裕,市(shi)场(chang)供应(ying)预(yu)期趋稳(wen),价(jia)格(ge)(ge)(ge)高位回(hui)落(luo)。稻谷连续多年(nian)(nian)产(chan)(chan)大(da)于需,库(ku)存(cun)充(chong)(chong)足(zu),价(jia)格(ge)(ge)(ge)小幅(fu)上涨;玉米(mi)(mi)下游(you)消费(fei)逐步恢复,价(jia)格(ge)(ge)(ge)持平略涨。大(da)豆油(you)料产(chan)(chan)能(neng)提升(sheng)工(gong)程开局良(liang)好(hao)(hao),国(guo)内(nei)大(da)豆、油(you)菜籽增产(chan)(chan),自给(ji)能(neng)力稳(wen)步提升(sheng)。但(dan)受全球(qiu)大(da)豆油(you)料供给(ji)宽(kuan)松(song)、美元持续加息等因(yin)素影响(xiang)(xiang),今(jin)年(nian)(nian)以(yi)来(lai)国(guo)际(ji)油(you)脂油(you)料价(jia)格(ge)(ge)(ge)降幅(fu)较大(da),传导拉(la)低国(guo)内(nei)市(shi)场(chang)价(jia)格(ge)(ge)(ge)。下半(ban)年(nian)(nian),随着经济(ji)继续恢复向好(hao)(hao),餐饮(yin)消费(fei)加快回(hui)升(sheng),粮(liang)食消费(fei)需求有(you)可能(neng)好(hao)(hao)于上半(ban)年(nian)(nian)。要密切关注国(guo)内(nei)外粮(liang)食市(shi)场(chang)形势(shi)变化,聚焦(jiao)保供稳(wen)价(jia),做好(hao)(hao)市(shi)场(chang)调(diao)控,保持国(guo)内(nei)市(shi)场(chang)供应(ying)充(chong)(chong)足(zu)、运行(xing)平稳(wen)的良(liang)好(hao)(hao)态势(shi)。

保障粮食(shi)安全(quan),关键(jian)是(shi)要(yao)保障粮食(shi)生产能(neng)力(li),确保需要(yao)时能(neng)产得出、供(gong)得上(shang)。要(yao)深入实施“藏(zang)粮于地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)、藏(zang)粮于技”战略,持(chi)续提高粮食(shi)综合生产能(neng)力(li)。耕(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)是(shi)粮食(shi)生产的“命根子(zi)”。近年(nian)来,我国采取“长牙齿”的措施保护耕(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di),取得一些(xie)成效,但耕(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)“非粮化(hua)(hua)”“非农(nong)化(hua)(hua)”问(wen)题依然突出,守住(zhu)18亿亩(mu)耕(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)红线的基(ji)础尚不稳固(gu),农(nong)田(tian)水利方面欠账还有很多。要(yao)充分调动农(nong)民和地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)方政(zheng)(zheng)府保护耕(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)的积极性,把(ba)耕(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)保护党(dang)政(zheng)(zheng)同(tong)责(ze)落到实处,确保18亿亩(mu)耕(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)实至名归(gui)。全(quan)力(li)提升(sheng)耕(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)质量(liang),结(jie)合农(nong)田(tian)建(jian)设、耕(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)整治,破解耕(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)细碎化(hua)(hua)难题,把(ba)小田(tian)变大田(tian),把(ba)耕(geng)(geng)(geng)(geng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)特别(bie)是(shi)永久基(ji)本农(nong)田(tian)全(quan)部建(jian)成高标准农(nong)田(tian)。不断拓展(zhan)农(nong)业生产空间(jian),加强撂荒地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)治理,因地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)制宜利用盐(yan)碱地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di),发展(zhan)设施农(nong)业,向盐(yan)碱地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)要(yao)食(shi)物,向设施农(nong)业要(yao)空间(jian)。

保(bao)(bao)障(zhang)粮(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)离不开法(fa)治护航(hang)。近年来(lai),我(wo)国粮(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)保(bao)(bao)障(zhang)能(neng)力不断提(ti)高(gao),粮(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)连年丰收、库存充裕、供(gong)应(ying)充足(zu),但耕地保(bao)(bao)护形势依(yi)然严峻(jun)、粮(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)质(zhi)量安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)状况堪忧(you)、粮(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)产后损失浪费严重(zhong)、贪污(wu)腐败高(gao)发等(deng)各种问(wen)题交织,粮(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)隐(yin)患重(zhong)重(zhong)。需要加(jia)速(su)推(tui)进粮(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)保(bao)(bao)障(zhang)法(fa)出(chu)(chu)台,推(tui)动粮(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)治理体系走向(xiang)法(fa)治化、现代化。6月26日粮(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)保(bao)(bao)障(zhang)法(fa)草(cao)(cao)案首(shou)次(ci)提(ti)请十四届全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)国人大常委会第三次(ci)会议审议,标志着粮(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)领域的立法(fa)迈出(chu)(chu)关键步伐。草(cao)(cao)案坚持问(wen)题导向(xiang),聚焦耕地保(bao)(bao)护、粮(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)生产、粮(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)储备(bei)、粮(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)流通(tong)、粮(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)加(jia)工、粮(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)应(ying)急、粮(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)节(jie)约、监督管理等(deng)突出(chu)(chu)问(wen)题,旨在(zai)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)方位夯实(shi)粮(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)根基,提(ti)高(gao)防范和抵御粮(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)风(feng)险能(neng)力,保(bao)(bao)障(zhang)粮(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)有效供(gong)给。

保(bao)(bao)(bao)障(zhang)粮(liang)食安(an)(an)全(quan),既要(yao)着眼于当下,确保(bao)(bao)(bao)全(quan)年(nian)粮(liang)食生(sheng)产目(mu)标的(de)实现;更要(yao)着眼于长远,加强耕地保(bao)(bao)(bao)护和质量(liang)提升(sheng),健全(quan)粮(liang)食安(an)(an)全(quan)保(bao)(bao)(bao)障(zhang)制度(du),加快粮(liang)食安(an)(an)全(quan)保(bao)(bao)(bao)障(zhang)立法,提高粮(liang)食安(an)(an)全(quan)保(bao)(bao)(bao)障(zhang)治理水平,把中国人(ren)的(de)饭(fan)碗端得更牢更稳。(本(ben)文来源:经(jing)济(ji)日(ri)报作(zuo)者:刘慧)(经(jing)济(ji)日(ri)报)